Surat-ul-Ikhlaas


{This is an extract from the Sharh of Dr. Muhammad Khalil Harras of Aqeedatul-Waasitiyyah by Sheikh ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah}

It is proved from the authentic Ahadith that this Surah (Surat-ul-Ikhlaas) is equal to one third of the Qur’aan. The ‘Ulama’ (Scholars) have made several statements in this connection and among these, the statement copied by Sheikh ul-Islam from Ibn Abbas is most authentic. The substance of this statement is that the Qur’aan consists of three fundamental objectives:

1. The ‘dos and don’t s’ which comprise the commandments and practical ways, and these form the subject matter of the discipline of Fiqh (jurisprudence) and ethics.

2. The tales and narratives which include the stories of the Messengers of Allaah and their communities. Such disasters have also been described which befell those who denied the Messengers of Allaah; they also mention the promises, the rewards and the dooms.

3. The knowledge of Tawhid (Islamic Monotheism) and the description of those matters which relate to the Names of Allaah and His Attributes and to believe in them is necessary for the worshippers of Allaah. This is the most important among all three.

Surat Al Ikhlaas comprises this third objective and gives a general description of it. It is therefore correct to say that this Surah is equal to one third of the Qur’aan.

A question is raised regarding how this Surah contains comprehensively the entire knowledge of Tawhid and its principles which form the centre of belief and rationality in one Allaah.

The answer to this lies in the fact that Allaah’s Command: {Say: “He is Allah, (the) One.} negates partnership with Him in every sense, whether it concerns His Self or His Attributes, or His Deeds. It likewise demonstrates the distinctiveness of Allaah in greatness, perfection, magnificence and majesty. That is why the word Ahad (One) will not be used for anyone except Allaah. This word is more emphatic that Waahid (One).

Ibn Abbas has done the explanation of this phrase Allaahu-us-Samad {Allaah, the Eternal, the Absolute} which his statement which is as follows:

The Master Who is perfect is His mastery; the Great One Who is perfect in His greatness; the Tolerant Who is perfect in His tolerance, the Omnipotent Who is perfect in His omnipotence; the All-Knowing Who is perfect in His knowledge; the One Who is perfect in all types of nobility and greatness- that Self is only Allaah- the Most Revered and the Most Powerful. He alone has these qualities for they do not apply to anyone else except Him. No one is equal to Him, and no one is like Him. {The complete statement of Ibn Abbas is reported by Ibn Kathir with additional wording}

The explanation of As-Samad  has also been done as follows: The One Who has no fear; toward Whom all creatures turn; and Whom they seek after in all their needs and works.

Affirmation of Oneness of Allaah includes negation of polytheism and similitude. And the affirmation of all the meanings of Samad includes all the noblest Names and exalted Attributes. This is called Tawhid of Affirmation.

The other type, that is Tawhid of purity has been derived from the statement of Allaah: {He begets not, nor was He begotten; And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him.}

Moreover, this interpretation can also be derived in a general sense from {Say: “He is Allah, (the) One.}. That is, nothing came out of Him nor has He come out of anything; and that He has no equal, no likeness and no similarity.

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